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   شناسایی ابعاد و مولفه‌های مفهوم خودسازماندهی شهری با استفاده از روش فراترکیب  
   
نویسنده صفار سبزوار فاطمه ,دانشور مریم ,حنایی تکتم ,سیدالحسینی مسلم
منبع دانش شهرسازي - 1398 - دوره : 3 - شماره : 4 - صفحه:53 -71
چکیده    بیان مساله: از زمان ورود مفهوم خودسازماندهی از حوزه ی سیستم های پیچیده به حوزه ی مطالعات شهری، این موضوع مورد توجه پژوهشگران بسیاری قرار گرفته است و محققین مختلف با رویکرد های متفاوتی به آن نگریسته اند، اما فقدان پژوهشی که تمام ابعاد، ویژگی ها و مولفه های این مفهوم را مورد بررسی قرار داده و درک جامعی از خودسازماندهی شهری را ارائه نماید، احساس می گردد. هدف: هدف از این پژوهش، شناسایی ابعاد و مولفه های مفهوم خودسازماندهی شهری و تلاش برای دستیابی به درک جامعی از آن می باشد. نتایج این پژوهش می تواند ابعاد مختلف مفهوم خودسازماندهی شهری را جهت بهره گیری در توسعه ی شهرها و محلات کشور روشن سازد. روش: برای رسیدن به هدف مذکور در تحقیق حاضر از روش فراترکیب استفاده شده است. در گام اول از میان 62 مقاله ی اولیه ی یافته شده، تعداد 29 مقاله به صورت اصولی و با استفاده از روش کسپ غربال شده اند. در گام بعدی مقالات نهایی با محوریت سوال پژوهش، در نرم افزار maxqda کدگذاری شده و یافته های کیفی مورد تحلیل و ترکیب قرار گرفت. یافته ها:  در این پژوهش، طی فرآیند استخراج اطلاعات تعداد 108 کد شناسایی شد و سپس با توجه به میزان شباهت مفاهیم، در قالب پنج مقوله ی زمینه ها و عوامل موثر، نظریات پشتیبان ، ویژگی ها، دامنه ی کاربرد و مقیاس، دسته بندی شده و تلاش گردید که هر کدام از مقولات مذکور به تفکیک نوع دیدگاه تشریح گردد. نتیجه گیری: در پژوهش پیش رو، برای نخستین بار ابعاد و مولفه های خودسازماندهی شهری به تفصیل مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. نتایج  این پژوهش نشان می دهد، اگرچه مطابق با نظریات موجود، ماهیت فرآیندهای خودسازماندهی شهری بر پایه ی تعاملات محلی و به دور از دخالت نیروهای خارجی مانند دولت قرار دارد، اما جهت مطالعه این فرآیندها و بهره گیری از آنها در فرآیندهای برنامه ریزی، توجه به نقش عوامل محیطی و خارجی نیز ضروری به نظر می رسد.
کلیدواژه سیستم‌های پیچیده، خودسازماندهی شهری، فراترکیب
آدرس دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد, گروه شهرسازی, ایران, دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد, گروه شهرسازی, ایران, دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد, دانشکده هنر و معماری, گروه شهرسازی, ایران, دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد, گروه شهرسازی, ایران
 
   Identification of the urban selforganization’s dimensions and components using the metasynthesis method  
   
Authors Saffar Sabzevar Fatemeh ,Daneshvar Maryam ,Seyedolhosseini Seyed Moslem ,Hanaee Toktam
Abstract    Problem statement: Since the arrival of the concept of selforganization from the domain of the complex systems to the field of urban studies, this topic has attracted many scholars. Various researchers have come up with it from two different approaches including the sociospatial selforganizing and communitybased urban selforganization. Studies showed that the concept of the urban selforganization can help planners to improve not only the unexpected spatialsocial events in cities and the inadequate implementation of the anticipated plans and programs, but also the inefficiencies in the existing collaborative processes. Trying to apply the concept of the urban selforganization in the planning and management of the cities requires a detailed understanding of this concept and its various aspects. However, there has been no research that investigates all the dimensions, features and components of this concept and provides a comprehensive understanding of the urban selforganization. In this regard, the present study seeks to answer this question: what are the dimensions and components of the concept of the urban selforganization? Aim: the purpose of the present study was to identify the dimensions and components of this concept and to achieve a comprehensive understanding of it. The results of this research can clarify the different dimensions of the urban selforganization concept for exploitation in the development of cities and neighborhoods of the country. Methodology: In this research, the metasynthesis has been used to study the concept of the urban selforganization and to explain its dimensions and components. The research population consisted of all Persian and English scientific articles published in the field of the urban selforganization, without temporal and spatial constraints. The Sid, Magiran, Springer, Google Scholar, Wiley, Science Direct and Taylor & Francis databases have been used to access these articles. The total number of the articles obtained in this study was 62, which was reviewed by the CASP method in order to obtain more accurate results. After screening articles through the CASP, there was 29 articles and due to the low sample size, all of them were examined. Of the 29 final papers, 11 articles had considered urban selforganization as a sociospatial theme (first view), they were published mainly in the early years of introducing the selforganization in the field of the urban studies. The remaining 18 articles had referred to the urban selforganization as a communitybased phenomenon (second view), which has been included in the urban discourse since about 2010. The final sources were coded using the MAXQDA 10 software with a focus on the research question, aiming at a comprehensive understanding of the concept of the urban selforganization and explaining its various dimensions. Findings: During the data extraction process, 108 codes were identified and then they were grouped into five categories according to the similarity of concepts, i.e., fields and factors, supporting theories, properties, scope of use and measure. It was tried to explain each of the mentioned categories based on the type of the view, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, for the first time, the dimensions and components of the urban selforganization were investigated in detail.The results of the present study showed that although according to the existing theories, the nature of the urban selforganization processes is based on the local interactions and not the interference of the external factors such as the government, however, to study these processes and to use them in planning processes, it is necessary to consider the role of the environmental and external factors. In order to support and encourage the processes of the urban selforganization as a tool for the collaborative planning which can assume some of the responsibilities of the governments, it is necessary first and foremost that the urban selforganization processes as valuable capacities to be accepted by the city officials. In order to take advantage of these capacities, it is necessary to establish and envisage the legal frameworks based on the citizens’ collective initiatives. Transparency of the information related to the urban planning and sharing this information with the local residents through the use of the information technology and through the launch of the online sites and software are other measures that could support and accelerate these processes. Also, identifying the structural forces of each neighborhood, whether individual or local, and facilitating the exchange of information between the government and the citizen, are among the issues that should be addressed. In addition, upgrading the social capital in the neighborhoods can increase the likelihood of the urban selforganization processes at the neighborhood level.
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