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   اثرات صندوق های اعتبارات خُرد بر بهبود کیفیت زندگی زنان روستایی در شهرستان گرگان  
نویسنده تربتی زهرا ,محبوبی محمدرضا ,شریف زاده محمدشریف
منبع اقتصاد فضا و توسعه روستايي - 1400 - دوره : 10 - شماره : 2 - صفحه:119 -136
چکیده    اﻣﺮوزه ﺑﻬﺒﻮد ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ زنان روستایی از ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ اﺻﻠﻲ در ﻛﺸﻮرﻫﺎی ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ به ویژه کشورهای در حال توسعه ﺑﻮده و اعطای اعتبارات خُرد یکی از راهکارهای دستیابی به این هدف تلقی می شود. هدف این تحقیق بررسی اثرات صندوق اعتبارات خُرد بر کیفیت زندگی زنان روستایی شهرستان گرگان بود. بر مبنای روش تحقیق توصیفی، 70 نفر از زنان عضو صندوق و 200 نفر از زنان غیرعضو، با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی به عنوان نمونه تحقیق انتخاب شدند. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات پرسشنامه بود. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با نرم افزار spss و با استفاده از آزمون های مقایسه میانگین من وایتنی، ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن و آزمون فریدمن انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد تفاوت معنی داری بین گروه عضو و غیرعضو از نظر مولفه های کیفیت زندگی چون سلامت روان، روابط اجتماعی، سلامت محیطی و کیفیت کل وجود دارد و گروه عضو اهمیت این مولفه ها را بیشتر ارزیابی کرده اند. نتایج آزمون همبستگی نشان دهنده وجود رابطه مثبت و معنی دار بین سلامت جسمانی زنان با میزان تحصیلات همسر، سلامت روانی زنان با میزان تحصیلات خود و همسران، روابط اجتماعی زنان با میزان تحصیلات همسران و سابقه عضویت در صندوق و سلامت محیطی زنان با سابقه عضویت آنان در صندوق بود. همچنین مقایسه میانگین بین مولفه های کیفیت زندگی نشان داد پاسخگویان تاثیر عضویت در صندوق را بر مولفه های جسمانی کیفیت زندگی خود بیشتر ارزیابی کرده اند و مولفه های اجتماعی، روانی و محیطی در درجات بعدی اهمیت قرار دارند.
کلیدواژه صندوق مالی، اعتبارات خُرد، کیفیت زندگی، زنان روستایی، شهرستان گرگان
آدرس دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان, ایران, دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان, ایران, دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان, ایران
   Factors affecting wheat waste from the perspective of villagers in Shush  
Abstract    IntroductionFor decades, various programs have been designed and implemented to create food security, but the number of people suffering from food insecurity is increasing. This is the situation in rural areas of developing countries. In fact, ensuring the country #39;s food security is one of the important pillars of the independence of developing countries. At present, agricultural products comprise an important part of the country #39;s food need. Creating a security margin in meeting the country #39;s food need through agricultural products requires attention to shortterm demand in the current situation and longterm food demand in the coming years, and hence planning to meet the country #39;s demand in both of the situation. Agriculture plays a key role in ensuring food security and plays a pivotal role in economic growth and rural development through the provision of demanded food and job opportunities. Wheat as one of the most important agricultural products has long been considered by humans. Among cereals used by humans, this product has a special place due to the wide adaptation of cultivation to different climatic conditions, ease of cultivation, capability of long time storage, cheapness, high nutritional value and usability in various forms. It has a long history of cultivation in different parts of the world in order to produce seeds for bread, animal feed and industrial purposes. Similarly, wheat accounts for more than 20 percent of the food expenditure of Iranian households, and wheat products provide about 40 percent of the calories and about 50 percent of the daily protein need of each person. According to the FAO, wheat accounts for about 30 percent of the world #39;s grain production. In fact, the waste of valuable natural resources is one of the most important issues in today #39;s society, which is mainly due to irrational consumption, irresponsibility, carelessness, disbelief and ignorance of actors involved in the processes of production, distribution and consumption of rare resources. For this reason, the issue of sustainability of the wheat production system to feed the current generation from existing sources, so that not jeopardizing the nutrition of future generations is one of the important issues of the present time. Furthermore, selfsufficiency in the production of agricultural products in the current world and food security in the country is essential. In this regard, especially the reduction of waste of strategic crops such as wheat is one of the important factors in increasing production and reducing imports. Now, according to the current demand and also with the trend of predicting population growth in the future and the importance of selfsufficiency of communities, the total production of crops, especially cereals should be increased with new methods, because the need for food grains to meet growing and unstable demand is a big challenge, especially in developing countries. Research MethodologyIn terms of purpose, the present study is applied and in terms of methodology is descriptiveanalytical. A survey was utilized to collect the data in which the factors affecting wheat waste from the perspective of farmers have been identified. The research data collection tool is based on a researchermade questionnaire that has been done after extracting research indicators and variables based on theoretical foundations and studies. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed based on the collective opinion of the professors of the Department of Agricultural Management and Development, University of Tehran and experts of the Ministry of Agriculture Jahad of Shush County. Cronbach #39;s alpha test was used to measure the reliability, which was 0.85. This showed the reliability of the acceptable data for analysis. The statistical population consisted of 1230 farmers in Shush County. Sampling was done in a multistage manner so that one rural district was randomly selected from each part of the county and then 3 villages were selected from each of these rural districts. In the final stage, among the wheat farmers of the selected villages, the final samples were randomly selected based on the sample size estimated by Cochran #39;s formula. In this study, in order to determine the sample size, first 20 questionnaires were distributed among the community members for pretest and after a preliminary review and completion of the questionnaires, using Cochran #39;s formula, the sample size was determined to be 214 people. 220 people were statistically analyzed to ensure the completion of the questionnaire and to prevent a decrease in the sample.Discussion and conclusionExploratory factor analysis was used to identify ways to improve the reduction of producers #39; waste. Based on the results, it was found that the components affecting wheat waste in Shush County could be classified into six groups, respectively,1) The situation of cultivation and consumption of the inputs (amount of fertilizers used, field density, use of animal manures, type of previous cultivation, land area) 2) Lack of attention to education and extension (lack of promoters and technical staff in the region, low farmer experience, lack of participation in trainingextension classes, the presence of weeds on the farm, lack of familiarity with the irrigation process, lack of farmer supervision) 3) Lack of technical examination and unsuitable land utilization (harvest time, grain moisture, timely harvest, type of land (in terms of flatness), unsuitable climatic conditions, germination before harvest) 4) Lack of attention to the development and organization of harvesting fleets and the motivation of combine harvester owners (lack of punctual access to combine harvester, worn combine harvester, low skill of combine harvester driver, lack of technical inspection of combine harvester, combine model) 5) Farmers #39; technical knowledge (delay in planting time, planting method, seed mixing) 6) Management weakness in planting and maintenance stages (type of wheat cultivar, presence of disease and pest on the field), In total, 62.26% of the variable changes express strategies to reduce wheat waste. If these six factors are considered in different planning, the level of waste will be significantly reduced.

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