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   اثرات کارآفرینی روستایی در توسعه فضا‌های پیراشهری شهرستان کرمانشاه  
   
نویسنده مرادی حوریه ,جوان فرهاد ,امرایی سپیده ,بیرانوندراد مریم
منبع اقتصاد فضا و توسعه روستايي - 1399 - دوره : 9 - شماره : 4 - صفحه:63 -82
چکیده    کارآفرینی به‌عنوان یک فرآیند اقداماتی نوظهور و ایجاد ارزش در مکان‌‌های جغرافیایی است که در صورت برنامه ریزی و مدیریت عقلایی می‌تواند سرمایه‌ای برای توسعه فضای اجتماعی و جغرافیایی باشد. جریان های کارآفرینانه روستایی، شکل گیری بنگاه ‌های اقتصادی خرد و بازتاب پذیری و نقش پذیری کارآفرینان در جریان‌های توسعه ای نواحی پیرامون شهر‌های بزرگ، می تواند دگرگونی ‌های مکانی فضایی را سبب شده و در توسعه کلانشهر نقش قابل‌توجهی داشته باشد، بر این اساس، مقاله حاضر باهدف تبیین اثرات کارآفرینی روستایی در توسعه فضا‌های پیراشهری شهرستان کرمانشاه بر پایه ی روش فرایندی نگرش چندبعدی کارآفرینی طراحی شد. روش پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی و گردآوری اطلاعات به شیوه میدانی و پرسشنامه ای بود. جامعه آماری شامل 21 روستای کارآفرین بافاصله کمتر از 20 کیلومتر از کلانشهر بود؛ این روستا‌ها به دلیل حضور کارآفرینان و پیوستگی مکانی فضایی با شهرستان کرمانشاه، با چالش ‌ها و مسائل بیش از دیگر نواحی روستایی روبرو بوده و بر توسعه شهرستان اثرگذار بودند. برای تحلیل اثرات از آزمون ‌های همبستگی و رگرسیون چندگانه در نرم‌افزار spss20 استفاده شد. یافته ‌ها نشان داد بین متغیر‌های روحیه کارآفرینی افراد، فرآیند اقتصادی و محیطی حاکم بر روستا و توسعه فضا‌های پیراشهری رابطه مثبت و معنی‌داری در سطح یک درصد خطا برقرار است. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون نیز نشان داد که متغیر‌های کارآفرینی روستایی (روحیه کارآفرینی افراد، فرآیند اقتصادی و محیط (بیرونی و درونی) حاکم بر روستا)، تاثیر معنی‌داری بر توسعه فضا‌های پیراشهری داشته و توانایی تبیین 96 درصد از تغییرات متغیر توسعه فضا‌های پیراشهری شهرستان را دارد. مهم‌ترین متغیر اثرگذار نیز متغیر محیطی تشخیص داده شد.
کلیدواژه کارآفرینی روستایی، اقتصاد روستایی، فضا‌های پیراشهری، بنگاه‌‌های اقتصادی خرد، کرمانشاه
آدرس دانشگاه لرستان, ایران, دانشگاه خوارزمی, ایران, دانشگاه لرستان, ایران, دانشگاه لرستان, ایران
 
   The Impact of Rural Entrepreneurship on Urban Peripheral Spaces Development of Kermanshah County  
   
Authors Javan Farhad ,Moradi Horieh ,Beiranvandrad Maryam ,Amraei Sepideh
Abstract    IntroductionRural Entrepreneurship is a process of emerging actions and value creation in geographical places. If planned and rationally managed, it can be an investment in the development of social and geographical space in rural areas. Rural entrepreneurial streams, the formation of microenterprises and the reflectivity and roleplaying of entrepreneurs in the development of areas around large cities, can cause spatiallocal changes in development. Accordingly, the present article was designed with the aim of analyzing the effects of rural entrepreneurship in the development of suburban spaces in Kermanshah based on the process method of multidimensional entrepreneurial attitude.Research MethodsThe present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptiveanalytical in terms of method. The statistical population is those rural settlements that have a history of agricultural activities and water and land capacities and under the demand pressure and condition went through changes such as replacing the cultivation of new crops instead of traditional ones, patterns of cultivation and more intensive cultivation. A total number of 21 entrepreneur villages of urban peripheral spaces located in Baladarband and Miyandarband Rural Districts in the central district of Kermanshah city in the period of (20162017) was included 38 active entrepreneurs less than 20 km away from Kermanshah metropolis. Since the number of rural entrepreneurs in the city was limited, in order to increase the accuracy of the research, a complete enumeration was used. A process approach to entrepreneurship in suburban areas is a multidimensional approach. In this view, entrepreneurship is a multidimensional and complex framework that emphasizes the individual, the environment, the organization, and the process of the economic project. According to Kuratko and Hodgest 2004, this type of process shifts entrepreneurship from a fragmented school of thought to a dynamic and interactive process approach that constitutes the variables and items measured in this study. The method of data collection was field method (questionnaire); its face validity was confirmed and its validity and reliability were obtained by using Cronbachchr('39')s alpha test for the variables of external and internal environment of entrepreneurship in the suburban area of ​​0.72, which indicated the appropriateness of the research tool. For this purpose, first the dimensions and concepts of identifying the suburban areas of the central district of Kermanshah city are inferred and determined according to the typology of the suburban areas. Then, correlation and multiple regression tests in SPSS20 software were used to analyze the effects.Discussion and ConclusionFindings indicate that entrepreneurship in the central district of Kermanshah, from a spatial perspective, is the space of functions such as some agricultural and industrial activities (such as production sites) organic fertilizers, cut flowers, production of new crops instead of traditional crops, etc.), tourism and recreation that cannot be placed in Kermanshah due to lack of sufficient space. Conceptually, it has been associated with rapid social and economic growth. From an institutional point of view, it is very complex and sometimes confusing in the field of management due to the presence of formal and informal stakeholders, and this complexity has often led to the failure of economic activities in this region. In other words, from the perspective of the urban peripheral entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurial areas of the central district of Kermanshah city are structurallyphysically in the category of rural urban peripheral spaces (rural places with urban awareness and thinking), which are not close to the city center and distance from the city (maximum 20 km). However, due to the presence of entrepreneurs and the spatial connection with the metropolis of Kermanshah, they have caused changes and are experiencing a kind of urban life. The results also showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the variables of entrepreneurial spirit of individuals, economic and environmental process in rural areas and the development of suburban spaces at the level of one percent error. The results of regression analysis showed that the variables of rural entrepreneurship (entrepreneurial spirit of individuals, economic process and environment (external and internal) governing the village), have a significant effect on the development of suburban spaces and have the ability to explain 96% of changes in suburban spaces. The most important influential variable was the environmental variable. In this study, among the multiple dimensions of entrepreneurship, the most important variable in the development of suburban spaces was identified as the internal and external environment of rural space, Entrepreneurschr('39') role in the environment includes the currents and peripheral spaces that govern entrepreneurship, such as people, experiences, social, economic, political, technology and related constructive interactions between the entrepreneur and the environment, can be concluded external elements affect the entrepreneur and his personality and in some cases create ideal conditions in which the entrepreneur can discover opportunities and take advantage of them. Therefore, it is proposed to control the flows and forces (economic, social, technological and political) that impact the entrepreneurs and their businesses from the external environment of the villages over time.
Keywords Rural Entrepreneurship ,Rural Economic ,Urban Peripheral Spaces ,Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) ,Kermanshah
 
 

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