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   تحلیل محدودیت‌‌های توسعه اقتصادی مبتنی بر شاخص های طبیعی مورد: نواحی روستایی استان هرمزگان  
نویسنده نجفی اسماعیل ,ابدالی یعقوب ,بیرانوندزاده مریم
منبع اقتصاد فضا و توسعه روستايي - 1399 - دوره : 9 - شماره : 4 - صفحه:107 -132
چکیده    پژوهش حاضر باهدف، پهنه‌بندی و تحلیل محدودیت‌‌های توسعه اقتصادی دهستان های استان هرمزگان ازنظر شاخص‌‌های محیط طبیعی انجام‌شده است. روش تحقیق به کار گرفته‌شده، تلفیقی از روش‌‌های توصیفی تحلیلی و همبستگی است. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌‌ها، از روش مک گراناهان و برای سنجش میزان همبستگی بین متغیر‌های محیطی و توسعه اقتصادی نقاط روستایی استان هرمزگان از ضریب همبستگی کرامر بهره گرفته‌شده است. برای وزن دادن به شاخص‌‌ها از روش محاسبه جمع امتیازات برای ترکیب شاخص‌‌ها استفاده‌شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که در دهستان های استان هرمزگان، بیش‌ترین درصد فراوانی توسعه اقتصادی مربوط به سطح محدودیت محیطی متوسط و کم بوده و کمترین درصد نیز مربوط به دهستان های‌ با محدودیت محیطی زیاد و محدودیت محیطی بسیار کم است، یعنی از بین 92 دهستان استان هرمزگان، 12 دهستان توسعه اقتصادی با محدودیت محیطی بسیار زیاد، 9 دهستان محدودیت محیطی زیاد، 35 دهستان محدودیت محیطی متوسط، 26 دهستان محدودیت محیطی کم و 10 دهستان محدودیت محیطی بسیار کم هستند. با توجه به نتایج از آزمون همبستگی vکرامر می‌توان این استنباط را نمود که بین متغیر‌های محیطی با توسعه اقتصادی روستایی همبستگی و رابطه مستقیم و معنی‌داری وجود دارد و مقدار سطح معناداری آن‌‌ها (0.000) نشان از وجود رابطه بین متغیر‌های مستقل(عوامل محیطی) و وابسته(توسعه اقتصادی) دارد. درنهایت اینکه، شاخص‌‌های بارندگی، منابع آب، وضعیت اقلیم، قابلیت و استعداد اراضی و مخاطرات طبیعی(زلزله و سیلاب) از مهم‌ترین شاخص‌‌های محیطی هستند که در توسعه و عدم توسعه اقتصادی دهستان های استان هرمزگان نقش دارند.
کلیدواژه توسعه اقتصادی، اقتصاد روستایی، محدودیت های محیطی، استان هرمزگان
آدرس دانشگاه دامغان, دانشکده علوم زمین, گروه جغرافیای, ایران, دانشگاه تهران, ایران, جهاد دانشگاهی واحد لرستان, ایران
   Analysis of economic development constraints based on natural indicators Case: Rural areas of Hormozgan province  
Authors Najafi Esmaeil ,Beyranvandzadeh Maryam ,Abdali Yaqub
Abstract    IntroductionOne of the major and fundamental issues in the field of spatial planning is balanced development, which can be raised in the form of balanced development of sectors or regions. In line with the social justice policy, as the central aim of the countrychr('39')s development plans, it is necessary to study the situation of different regions in terms of distribution and the extent of having different environmental indicators and consider the shortcomings and inadequacies for future development plans. Such studies can show the situation of different geographical areas from a comparative point of view and classify them in terms of development facilities and bottlenecks, also, determine their development priorities. In this way, by assessing the potential level of the regions, their facilities and capabilities can be presented from different perspectives and the necessary tools can be provided to ascertain the decision for allocation of different resources in the territory. The aim of this study is to level, classify and spatial zoning of rural poverty in Hormozgan Province using environmental indicators and combined indicators. These indicators have been used to rank the rural areas of Hormozgan Province based on the level of environmental potential. The results of this study can be effective for decisionmaking officials and ultimately, the development of social justice. Research MethodsThe present research applieddevelopmental in terms of purpose. In respect of the type of methods it is a combination of descriptiveanalytical and correlational methods. The data used were collected through statistics and information published from the identification of settlements and statistical yearbook published in 2016, meteorological data, topographic maps, geology and faults, etc. For data analysis, McGranhan method or correlation coefficient method was used. Furthurmore, calculating the sum of points has been used to weight the indicators. The fuzzy scaling method is one of the most common and important methods for normalizing stability indices, which is the basis of many other methods and is also mentioned in the sources with titles such as deprivation coefficient. Indicators with a positive aspect (ascending) and indicators with a negative aspect (descending) have different computational bases. This method has also been used to determine deprivation coefficients and the Combined Human Development Index in the UN Human Development Report. This method also uses Spearman correlation coefficient. Kramer correlation coefficient has been used to express the degree of correlation between the two variables studied independent variables (environmental factors) and dependent variables (economic development). Discussion and ConclusionBased on the calculated combined environmental index score, 92 villages of Hormozgan province are located in 5 classes and zones. In 13.04% of the rural areas, the combined index score is less than 0.913 and in these rural areas, the environmental potential for development is very low. In 9.78% of the rural areas, the combined index score is between 0.914 to 1.095 and in these rural areas, the environmental potential for development is low. 38.04% of the rural areas in terms of environmental potential are in the range of 1.096 to 1.279, which is at an average level. Combined environmental index score in 28.26% of rural areas is between 1.280 to 1.462 and these rural areas have great potential in terms of environmental indicators. In 10.87% of the rural areas, the score of the combined environmental index is 1.463 and more. These rural areas have a great environmental potential. Among the rural districts of Hormozgan Province, Koukherd and Fatoueh Rural Districts are from Koukherd and central district of Bastak County, Gafer, Darabsar, Jakdan and Sardasht Rural Districts of Gaofroparmon, Gohran and central district in Bashagard County; Bandar Charak Rural District of Shibkuh District in Bandar Lengeh County; Rovidar Rural District of Rovidar District in Khamir County; Faryab Rural District of the central district in Rudan County and Cheragabad, Karian and Gorband Rural District of Tokhoor and central districts of Minab County are among the rural districts that are in a low situation of environmental capabilities and potentials. As the results suggest, the highest percentage of frequency is related to the level of moderate and low environmental poverty and the lowest percentage is related to rural areas with high environmental poverty and very low environmental poverty. That is, out of 92 rural areas in Hormozgan Province, 12 villages are very high in poverty, 9 villages are very poor, 35 villages are moderately poor, 26 villages are low in poverty and 10 villages are very low in poverty.The results suggest that there is a direct and significant relationship between environmental variables and rural economic development. The significant level (0.000) indicates the relationship between independent variables (environmental factors) and dependent (economic development). Rainfall, water resources, climate, land potential and natural hazards (earthquake and flood) are the most important environmental indicators that can play a role in limiting the economic development of rural areas in Hormozgan Province.The main natural environmental limitations for rural economic development in Hormozgan Province are the following:Low precipitation with unfavorable time and space distribution, hence lack of water resources, as a result, it is difficult to regenerate the natural forests and pastures and return to normal balance. Extension and multiplicity of saline formation along with alkalinity, which has made a large part of the provincechr('39')s water and soil resources saline and inutile. Risks caused by natural disasters, the influx of dunes and desertification with a negative inclination in pasture production and lack of investment to protect forests and pastures, water and soil and rural fuel supply.Continuation of drought and its negative consequences in agriculture, urban and rural development.Existence of unfavorable weather conditions that cause severe depreciation of material capital and machinery compared to other regions of the country. Also, the biggest problem in rural employment is the inadequacy of income from economic activities (mainly agriculture and maritime). One of the most important strategies in the field of agriculture is the development of greenhouse cultivation due to the conditions of water resources and shortages in this sector.
Keywords Economic Development ,Rural Economy ,Environmental Constraints ,Hormozgan Province

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