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   Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine  
نویسنده Zarshenas Mohammad Student Research Committee ,Zargaran A. ,Maüller J. ,Mohagheghzadeh A.
منبع Jundishapur Journal Of Natural Pharmaceutical Products - 2013 - دوره : 8 - شماره : 3 - صفحه:144 -148
چکیده    Background: over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of traditional persian medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. objectives: this study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. materials and methods: in the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of persia during 9th to 18th century ad have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. results: by searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval persia,different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. these types could be derived from powder,solution or liquid and gaseous forms. gaseous form were classified into fumigation (bakhoor),vapor bath (enkebab),inhalation (lakhlakheh),aroma agents (ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (shomoom). nasal solutions were as drops (ghatoor),nasal snuffing drops (saoot) and liquid snuffformulations (noshoogh). powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (otoos). nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. rather systemic disorders and specially cns complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. discussion: while this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration,it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. accordingly,medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. therefore,the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval persia and clarify a part of history of traditional persian pharmacy. © 2013,school of pharmacy,ahvaz jundishapur university of medical sciences; licensee docs ltd.
کلیدواژه Dosage Form; Herbal Medicine; Medicine; Traditional
آدرس Shiraz University Of Medical Sciences, ایران, Shiraz University Of Medical Sciences, ایران, University Of Marburg, Germany, Shiraz University Of Medical Sciences, ایران

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